Thursday, February 24, 2011

And by the way, water is life. Energy is a resource.

Fracking Democracy

A two-day spectacle carved into two-minute chunks
by Sandra Steingraber
Published in the January/February 2011 issue of Orion magazine

Don’t know if you’ve all seen this essay, but it’s brilliant and beautiful. Check it out: link above, excerpt below.

A geologist friend and I looked at each other in wonderment, and in my head, I began to imagine a 120-second rebuttal. It would go like this:

"Fracking constitutes consumptive water use, which is different from what happens to water when underground pipes leak and water re-enters the aquifer, or when irrigation leads to evaporation and cloud formation. When water is entombed in deep geological strata, a mile or more below the water table, it’s permanently removed from the water cycle. As in, forever. It will never again ascend into the clouds, freeze into snowflakes, melt into rivulets, cascade over rocks, turn with the tide, soak into soil, rise through roots, or pour from your tap. It will never again become blood, tears, sweat, urine, milk, sap, nectar, yolk, honey, or the juice of a fruit. It will never again float a leaf boat, swell a bud, quench a thirst, fill a swamp, spill over an edge, slosh, dribble, spray, trickle, splash, drip, or glisten. Never again fog, mist, frost, ice, dew, or rain. It’s gone. To conclude: fracking turns fresh water into poison and makes the water disappear. That’s something we’ve not done before on a large scale. And by the way, water is life. It’s energy that’s a resource."

Wednesday, February 23, 2011

America's Natural Gas Alliance "PR"

To Whom it may concern at America's Natural Gas Alliance (anga):

I just saw one of your ads, googled you, found your web site, and I must admit, I haven't seen such a load of misleading and disingenuous PR crap since the tobacco industry made the claim that cigarettes pose no known health risk. Another word for that kind of advertising is lying. (see attached Certus-Strategies report)

First of all, how dare you make the claim that natural gas is a 'clean alternative fuel'. Although it may be cleaner than oil or coal when burned, during it's life-cycle from extraction, to transportation, to use, it is at least as dirty as coal, and the methane that escapes during it's production is a more potent and harmful greenhouse gas than carbon monoxide. I know this, and the gas industry knows this, as well.

As for getting the US off foreign oil, that's simply not true. Natural gas and oil are largely non-interchangeable fuels. I would also like to point out that when you consider the foreign investment in US shale gas, we're simply taking one of our own natural resources, selling at wholesale prices to foreign interests who will in turn sell it to the highest bidder on the global market, and we'll end up buying back what was ours in the first place. Not to mention the intent of the industry to liquefy the gas for overseas sales.

This is not about creating jobs, it's not about 'getting off foreign oil', or 'clean/green energy'. It's about corporate profits, and in order to maximize those profits, shale gas extraction in the US will have to be massive in it's scale, which will result in a wide scale land grab, enormous water consumption, reduced air quality due to the necessary compressor stations, and ultimately a reduction in property values for anyone with leased property, or in close proximity to leased property.

Of course, you won't publicly admit to any of those facts. If you did, the negative public blow-back would put your industry at risk of more regulation, and you wouldn't be able to so easily convince people to turn over their land for industrial development. But, then again, that's why you have the 'land men', who as independent contractors can promise people anything, lie to them about the realities, and tell them how 'rich' they're going to get by signing your 'lease'. Little do they know, that by signing that 'lease', it is in essence a transfer of sub-surface ownership of their property. Little do they know, that no matter how much land they have, the gas industry is going to drill wherever, and whenever it wants, and all the land they'll actually be able to use will be a 200' parameter around their house. Not that they, or anyone else would want to live there anymore.

And, let's not forget about those wonderful high-risk jobs. 12 hour shifts, toxic chemicals, and inexperienced underpaid helpers just make a job with the industry too good to be true. Especially when the 'local jobs' are just temporary at best, anyway.

Why do you not mention the jobs the gas/oil industry will eliminate, too? Jobs in tourism, forestry, agriculture, small 'mom & pop' businesses, new home building, etc. Let's be honest, who in their right mind would ever want to vacation, hunt, fish, camp, farm, build a new home, or live near an industrialization of this magnitude? Especially when you contaminate our water and try to cover it up.

Now, just so you know, I am posting this correspondence on my blog, my FB page, and will forward this (bcc), along with the link to your website, to as many people as I can. It's my way of countering your misleading 'PR'. You see, I believe in truth in advertising and transparency of intent, even if you don't!

The gas industry won't tell us the truth, the government won't protect us, so we have to protect ourselves. This is my small contribution.

Just in case you choose to respond, use the email address this is sent from, or call me directly at 570-482-3503. I can do that because I have nothing to hide. I don't need an 'L.L.C.' after my name. I'm sure that you must think me arrogant and outspoken for trying to expose this industry for what it is, but if the gas industry was honest, transparent, and took responsibility for the lives, the property, and the environment they ruin, I wouldn't be doing this.

John Trallo
Sonestown, PA

"We, the people of Pennsylvania...."

We, the people of Pennsylvania.... did not ask for this fight, did not look for it, and would prefer it never came to us. However, since it has.... It is our legal right, obligation, and responsibility, to engage in lawful legal non-violent civil disobedience. The Corbett administration is leaving us little or no choice. We have the support and wisdom of some of the greatest minds in history on our side. Never forget that. ~JT

"If every person has the right to defend -- even by force -- his person, his liberty, and his property, then it follows that a group of men have the right to organize and support a common force to protect these rights constantly.

Thus the principle of collective right -- its reason for existing, its lawfulness -- is based on individual right. And the common force that protects this collective right cannot logically have any other purpose or any other mission than that for which it acts as a substitute.

Thus, since an individual cannot lawfully use force against the person, liberty, or property of another individual, then the common force -- for the same reason -- cannot lawfully be used to destroy the person, liberty, or property of individuals or groups." - Frederic Bastiat - (1801-1850) French economist, statesman, and author. He did most of his writing during the years just before -- and immediately following -- the French Revolution of February 1848
"We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable rights; that among these, are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed;" - -- Thomas Jefferson - (1743-1826), US Founding Father, drafted the Declaration of Independence, 3rd US President - Source: Declaration of Independence, June, 1776
"Society in every state is a blessing, but government even in its best state is but a necessary evil; in its worst state an intolerable one; for when we suffer, or are exposed to the same miseries by a government, which we might expect in a country without government, our calamity is heightened by reflecting that we furnish the means by which we suffer." - -- Thomas Paine - (1737-1809) US Founding father, pamphleteer, author.

Tuesday, February 22, 2011

Ingraffea/Seigel debate on gas drilling. Good stuff!

Time to WAKE UP!

Consider this your 'wake-up call'

If the people of Pennsylvania do not rise up NOW in righteous indignation and fight this to a win, we will lose all that we treasure forever. If you believe that we have is so precious it's worth fighting for, now is the time to fight back.

This isn't an economic issue, it's not a political issue, and it's beyond an environmental issue. This is a human rights issue!

The problem isn't the gas industry, or the puppet politicians they have in their pocket. The problem is us.

Too many people think: "we can't fight back", "there's no stopping this industry", and "maybe it won't be so bad". I for one, am not willing to accept that. It is no dishonor to lose a fight. However, to not even try to fight back is shameful and a disgrace. Is this the example we want to set for the next generation?

We owe it to ourselves, to our children, and to the future generations of Pennsylvanians yet to come to stand-up NOW.

Monday, February 21, 2011

I owe so much to the gas industry....

Three years ago, I heard that there were 'land men' coming around giving away 'free money' for people to lease their land for natural gas development that would probably never happen. However, if it did, it would be completely safe, we'd never know they were here, and when they were done all would be as it was, and everyone would be rich.

Two years ago, I started hearing rumors about gas wells drilled in other places that were contaminating the water, soil, and air, and ruining peoples property.... but of course, they were just rumors. That could never happen without people becoming outraged and that would certainly make headlines in the press. Besides, we've got the DEP and the EPA to protect us. After all, that is their job.

One year ago, the drillers began filtering into town. Nice, polite, affable out-of-state workers. As I became friends with some of them, they candidly began to warn me about the gas industry's plans for Pennsylvania... and it didn't sound good.

I began doing my own research, and discovered that what was quietly being unleased on us was a massive all encompassing industrialization that would change all of our lives in ways I could have never imagined.

If not for the gas industry, I would never know what it's like to question the safety of my drinking water on a daily basis. I would have never thought to hold a match to the water pouring from my faucet to see if it would ignite before I decided to drink it. Foolish me... I always thought water was used to put out fires! If not for the gas industry, I would never be able to fully appreciate the quiet stillness I experienced spending the night away from my own home. I never realized how those 'jake brakes' and diesel horns have become a fixture in my life.

If not for the gas industry, I would have never even considered moving again. I thought I was living in a virtual paradise, but the industry sure opened up my eyes! Indeed, I've learned so much from the gas industry that I never would have learned had they not come to town.

Thanks to them, I've been able to see the darker, greedy, more selfish side of some of my neighbors that I would have never imagined they were capable of. If not for the gas industry, I would have never guessed that so many politicians were so corrupt, and could be bought-off so cheaply.

I can honestly say, that thanks to the gas industry, I know more about geology, chemistry, politics, human nature, and corporate greed that I ever wanted to know. I would probably never have come to fully appreciate the pristine environment, and unimaginable beauty, of the region I chose to make my home in, that I see vanishing before my eyes.

Yes, the gas industry has taught me many things I would have never learned had they not come to town. I would have never known the anger and frustration I know now. Or, the level of suspicion I now have for our elected officials on all levels.

The gas industry has also taught me some other things, too. Like there are some people who simply can't be bough-off. That there are people who will stand up with you when the odds are not in your favor just because it's the right thing to do. I've learned that there are a lot more people than I would have suspected that truly care about the future of this planet.

I have come to know so many people that I've no doubt, I would have never met had the gas industry not invade my town, my life, and theirs. People who I'm proud to stand with in fighting for our right to fresh water, clean air, and a safe environment. People from all walks of life; technicians, lawyers, writers, teachers, laborers, artists, doctors, businessmen, farmers, musicians, scientists, salesman, etc. People who care enough to show-up, speak-out, and get involved. People who, like myself, have realized that in order to help ourselves, we have to help and support each other. Good, clear thinking, intelligent people who realize that not everything has a price tag. People I am proud to call my friends, and hope that think me worthy to call friend, as well.

Yes, I owe a lot to the gas industry. Because of them, I know now, that when people to stand-up for themselves and their neighbors, anything is possible. I know that the human spirit is still alive and well. I know, that if we all stand together against this, the most powerful industry in the world, we may, or may not, win. But, together we can't possibly lose. 



Wednesday, February 16, 2011

I've been asked: "What is my affordable alternative to natural gas & oil that will provide enough energy for a nation of 300M with reasonable comfort?"

Now here is the answer to your question:

Absolutely. First, it's not cheap. You need to acknowledge that oil & gas are not interchangeable fuels, without an enormous conversion cost. Second, only 10% of this gas will even be consumed in the US. The gas companies are multinational corporations. The majority of stakeholders are foreign entities who intend to liquefy, store, and sell the gas on the open market to the highest bidder... probably the US. So, we'll be 'reducing our dependency on foreign oil' and establishing a dependency on foreign owned natural gas for largely industrial use. It must also be said that the cost of the infrastructure to develop, transport, clean and refine this gas will be passed on to the consumer as it always is.

Next, the 'local jobs' this industry claims to create are low-end, mostly temporary, labor jobs that we will trading off long standing traditional permanent jobs for. EX: In PA, the largest industry is tourism (vacationing, hunting, fishing, camping, sight-seeing). The jobs in that industry will ultimately disappear forever as the industry consumes the land, the esthetics, and the water. Other jobs that will be permanently going away will be in agriculture, farming, real estate, new home building. People do not want to live in or near an industrial zone. Another thing that will disappear is the 'mom & pop' family stores, small hotels, restaurants, bed n' breakfasts, etc. Again, there will be no need for them.

Now, for a relatively cheap, clean, renewable, sustainable, and 100% domestic alternative would be the combination of wind & hydro turbines, solar, wood, bio-diesel, and geothermal. These alternatives can, and would provide sustainable jobs in manufacturing, installation, & service for these technologies. Plus, they are non-polluting, and will not deplete or contaminate our clean water supply, or threaten air quality. *Water replacement, processing, and cleaning will also add a tremendous cost to natural gas, and fresh water, like gas, oil, and coal, is also in finite supply and more essential to our health and quality of life.

What I'd also like to point out is the 'cost' of living with an industrialization of this magnitude. Many mortgage companies, will not approve a mortgage on 'leased land' and many insurance companies will not write a homeowners policy on land that is leased, or in close proximately to leased land. That will, and always has, resulted in crashing home value.

Natural gas, contrary to popular belief and industry claims, is NOT a clean alternative to oil or coal. Nat gas is cleaner when burned, but during it's life cycle from extraction, to processing, to transporting it, and burning it, is more polluting than oil and/or coal. (See the Cornell U study by Robert Howarth:

So, all that being said, I am not a tree-hugger, environmental fanatic, or a veggan. I'm a realist. And no, I do not use oil, coal or gas to heat my home. I heat all 2500 sq. ft of it exclusively with wood for about $250 p/year... and we can grow more trees. We can't grow, or manufacture, oil, coal, gas, or water.

The gas industry realizes these things. That is why, when you examine industry publications, many are predicting that within a decade, 'water will be the new oil', and be a lot more valuable.

When comparing the 'benefits' of natural gas development to the 'loses', the benefits fall short, and the environmental and social impact, the risks associated with natural gas development, as well as the basic economics of this, are simply not worth it. .

Compressor station in Dimock, PA FLIR Cam video

This FLIR footage of a compressor in Dimock that shows the emissions, this time in color. None of the emissions are visible to the eye.

Same site but with a FLIR camera to show the emissions:

Videos Courtesy of: Frank Finan

Monday, February 14, 2011

My letter to Robert F. Kennedy, Jr.

ATTENTION: Rob. F. Kennedy, Jr.

Dear Mr. Kennedy,

Thank you for your efforts to protect our environment, and your activism.

I just watched your interview with Josh Fox, and although I believe you were sincere in your concern for New York State, I whole heartedly disagree with your assessment of our situation in Pennsylvania.

It is true, that Pennsylvania is now three years into this massive and destructive industrialization, but it is not too late to stop it from continuing to ruin this beautiful, and still largely pristine state.

I too, have been to Dimock. I personally know the Sautner's, the Carter's, and the Switzer's. I was there when our former DEP director, John Hanger announced DEP's finding's that Cabot was at fault for the damage done in Dimock, and that the people of Dimock would be vindicated, compensated, and the situation 'made right' at Cabot's expense. Sadly, none of this has happened. The people of Dimock are still fighting for the justice they deserve, and people like myself thoughout Pennsylvania, and beyond, will continue to stand with them.

Me and my family live in Sullivan County, PA in the small town of Sonestown. We are now the new 'ground zero' for gas drilling. There has only been one gas well drilled in Sonestown so far, and it has now been leaking 'un-natural fluids' since December 13, 2010. Some people's dogs are refusing to drink the water drawn from our wells, people are getting nauseous, and the PA/DEP has done nothing more than issue an order for Chief Oil & Gas to repair the leak. In the meantime, Chief sold their interests to another company EXCO, who has also been instructed to make the repair. It is now, February 13, 2011 and still nothing has been done. Neither the DEP, the EPA, Chief, or EXCO so much as issued a warning, or cautionary statement to the communities that are being affected.

To be fair, without further water tests, I can't be sure just how dangerous a situation this poses for us at this writing. I have to think, if this 'leak' was benign in nature and posed no health or environmental threat, no repair would be necessary or required. What concerns me as well, is the lack of transparency on the part of the PA/DEP, Chief, EXCO, and the Marcellus Coalition regarding such instances. We are left to our own devices, and must be our own 'environmental police' in order to protect ourselves. Unfortunately, any information we gather is always after the fact, and that's too late!

In my email exchanges, and phone conversations with Dan Spadoni, Community Relations director for the DEP, I have been told that 'IF' anyone was experiencing health problems, or had issues with their water, then they would have addressed the problem.

I have the emails, and the lab reports that the DEP has had in their possession since Dec. 28th, and can substantiate everything that I'm telling you. (*I obtained these confidential lab results through a 'reliable source' with a contact inside the DEP. They were not published on their web site, or intended for public release.)

I would also like to remind you that Dimock was/is not an isolated incident. There have been similar contamination's in Clearfield, Hickory, Towanda, Canton, Alba, Hughesville, Tivoli, Lycoming Twp., and perhaps now, Sonestown, PA.

Mr. Kennedy, a few months ago, I received a hand written letter from you (which I still have) stating that you would continue to support our efforts to protect our environment, as well as our health and safety, and stand with us against this industry, and if there is anything you could do to help to please let you know.

Well, I'm now, 'letting you know'. What we need to stop this destruction is media coverage... and a bit of 'star power' to attract that media coverage so we can expose this industry for what it really is. We need you to come back to PA and take another tour of the affected areas like Bradford, Sullivan, Lycoming, and Tioga Counties, as well as Susquehanna County.

We now have Philadelphia & Pittsburgh taking a stand against fracking. The people in the PA rurals are getting on board more everyday. It is my belief that we're finally, after three years, starting to get somewhere. But with the industry PR machine operating at full throttle, we can't effectively fight back in the media unless we can get someone of your stature and reputation to stand with us.

I am personally willing to offer you lodging and whatever accommodations you would need, and arrange a 'town hall' public meeting with the necessary press coverage, if you would be willing to publicly 'stand with us' and help us defend what can never be replaced unless we stop this now.

Remember, New York City gets 100% of it's clean, fresh, unfiltered drinking water supply from Pennsylvania's water sheds, just as we do in Pennsylvania. Although New York State has temporarily stopped the drilling in that state, it's drinking water can not, and will not, be protected unless we can stop the drilling and fracking in Pennsylvania, too.

Mr. Kennedy, please think about it. Our environment, our water supply, and ultimately our health, safety, and people's lives are lying in the balance.

Thank you, and I look forward to your response.

John Trallo

What's Spewing Into The Air We Breathe?

What Are Marcellus Shale Drilling Operations Doing To Local Environment? See for yourself.

Headaches, sore throats, nose bleeds, asthma: these are the same problems that have been reported in Dallas-Ft. Worth, & Dish TX, Fayettville AR, Hickory, Dimock, and Towanda PA. Connect the dots!

The Economic Reality of Leasing Your Land for Gas Drilling... and more

My own personal economic 'rant' & 'rambling' on the gas & oil industry... for what it's worth.

I hear so many well meaning people say, "Gas drilling will be an economic 'boom' for Pennsylvania, and allow many cash strapped farmers to keep their farms, and provide jobs, jobs, jobs."

Let me say, I am not an economist. However, I do pride myself in having a certain amount of intellectual curiosity and a fair degree of common sense.

That being said, when I first learned the 'land men' were coming to my town in Sullivan County, PA, I went to the local volunteer fire hall to 'get leased up' like almost everyone else in town. I listened to the same sales pitch everyone I've spoken with since has heard. "It's a standard contract, it's the best offer you'll get, we probably won't even drill, the process is 100% safe, nothing to worry about, AND we'll write you a check right now!"

*I thought... "This sounds too good to be true.", so I told the land man that "it sounds reasonable, so I'm going to take this contract home, read it over a few times, have my attorney look at it, and I'll let you know what I decide." He seemed rather annoyed that I would even doubt his 'word' on what a good deal this was, and if I didn't sign the contract right then and there, it wouldn't be good the next day. (BIG RED FLAG!) So, I told him that if it's not going to be a good deal for me tomorrow, I can't be a good deal for me today, so for me it's 'no deal'.

Then, I started hearing ominous rumours about how the industry has been less than honest in these dealings, so I began looking into other states that this was happening in other states.

Well, it seemed the more I learned, the more I was convinced I had made the right decision not to sign, but I was also somewhat alarmed by the horror stories of contamination, ruined communities, industry lies, etc., etc. But right now, I want to focus on the economic realities that I discovered.

In all the states that this industry has invaded, approximately 2% of the people who leased actually became wealthy as a result. The majority of the people actually ended up LOSING what ever wealth they may have had, and another small percentage just about broke even.

You see, most leases (to be fair, not all) state that whatever percentage of 'royalties' the land owner is entitled to are paid only on the 'profit' from the gas drawn from their land, and most gas companies need to recapture at least 100% of their costs before any royalties are paid out. Also, if your land becomes part of 'group' or 'block' of property owners, you will only recieve a percentage of the royalties.

EXAMPLE: You agreed to a 16% royalty on the gas under your property. However, your property has since been 'pooled' or 'grouped' with nine other properties. Now, you'll be getting one-tenth of the 'royalties' from that gas. Your 16% just became 1.6%.

Also, in case the land man didn't tell you, you'll owe taxes on that 'royalty'. It may even put you into a higher income tax bracket! It must also be said that the yield of most gas wells is at it's highest level (70%) during the first eighteen months of operation. That's when the gas company is recapturing their 'costs'. So now, you're collecting 'royalties' on the back end as the yield is dropping off.

The other economic 'myth' is the jobs the industry will create. Of course, there will be some local jobs created initially, but most (approx. 80%) will go to out-of-state company workers. The local jobs are usually low end, labor jobs. Many of those jobs will vanish once the pads are drilled and the wells are in production mode, so they're 'temp jobs'.

Now, let's take into consideration the jobs the industry will cost in Pennsylvania. Traditionally, the number one industry in PA has been tourism. That will abruptly end as more wells are drilled. After all, who in their right mind would vacation anywhere near an industrial operation of this magnatude?

Other industries that will ultimately suffer are agriculture, hunting & fishing, logging/lumber, new home building, small businesses, and state forestry jobs. After all, farmers won't be doing much farming if there land is covered with gas wells, compressor stations, and pipelines. No farming = no local produce. Massive deforestation for well pads, etc., etc., will result in fewer trees. Too few trees = no logging. Also, industrialized state forests will have little or no use for traditional forestry jobs either. It has been projected that PA will lose as many as 90,000 non-gas industry jobs in the next decade.

As the industry moves in to PA, so will the corporate chain store like Walmart, Home Depot, Lowe's, as well as chain restaurants and fast-food eateries. They will quickly eliminate the mom & pop family businesses. Of course, these corporate run businesses will create some jobs, too, but once again, they'll be low-end minimum wage jobs. The local hardware stores, the general stores, small town bars, bed & breakfasts, family owned and operated restaurants will all be a thing of the past.

Local real estate also traditionally suffers. Home prices drop because no one wants to live near an industrial region of this size, while property taxes increase to offset the cost to repair roads, and built water treatment facilities.

The reality is, this will be a realtively short-term 'boom' then a temporary 'shift' in the job market. In twenty, maybe thrity years, the industry will leave many parts of PA. What it will leave behind will not resemble what we have now, nor will it be a place wear most people would want to live. PA will be left with the inevitable long-term/permanent 'bust', that this industry traditionally leaves in it's wake.

The esthetic scenery, the high quality streams, the waterfalls, the incredible mountains and vistas, the clean air, the wonderful wildlife and plant life, will all be gone forever.

We will have traded all that we have now, and everything else that has made PA so special for generations, including our precious water, for the empty promise of wealth, fleeting jobs, a severly compromised ecology, and a devestated economy. And, the saddest part of it all, is that we will only have ourselves to blame.

Next time you're near a drill site, listen to the sound of the drilling rig. It's telling us our future as it goes.... boom-shift-bust, boom-shift-bust, boom-shift-bust, boom-shift-bust, boom-shift-bust.... as it sucks the life out of Pennsylvania. 

At least that's what it sounds like to me. ~JT

Sunday, February 13, 2011

"Marcellus Shale" Hydraulic Fracturing - Frac Fluids - Gas Drilling - etc.

This Marcellus Shale gas drilling website is dedicated to providing photos, facts, opinions, stories and news about the Marcellus Shale gas play that you won't see other places. You'll find extensive photos of gas drilling sites, pipeline construction, well sites and compressor stations. News, facts and opinions about hydraulic fracturing. Public Meeting announcements related to Marcellus Shale.

RFK, Jr.: Oil Industry Trying to Silence "Gasland" Director Josh Fox

RFK, Jr.: Oil Industry Trying to Silence "Gasland" Director Josh Fox,
or... debunking the debunking of Gasland and telling the truth.

A must 'watch, listen, & learn' to all three parts:


Out-of-State Oil, Gas Workers v Local Jobs

Over 10,000 Out of State Gas Workers in Pennsylvania and More Will Be Coming

In W. Virginia, as in other states... locals jobs are promised, but not realized

Geologist warns of fracking water

Keep planned treatment plant away from the Susquehanna River, urges geologist, George Turner.

Friday, February 11, 2011

...and now, a little music to lighten the mood and lift the heart

'Long Way to the Heart' recorded live at Musikfest 2010
August 12, 2010

John Trallo: lead guitar, 6 & 12 string acoustic guitars, bass
Sean Smith: bass, acoustic guitar, flute
Dennis Coleman: drums, percussion, zendrum
Chris Michaels: violin, mandolin, mandoguitar, acoustic 12 string guitar
David Sullivan: electric & acoustic guitars, keyboards, harmonica

Thursday, February 10, 2011

PA State Representative Garth Everett on Frack Water

"The water doesn't come back.. it does come back"
Well... which is it?
The truth is, nobody really knows, and there lies the real problem.

The commercial the gas industry would really like to air

This is what the gas industry wants us to believe
a C.R.A.P.P. production

Former PA Official: Beware of Drilling's Pollution and "Shameful" Political Influence

As Maryland considers whether to allow hydraulic fracturing for natural gas, it should avoid the environmental damage that Pennsylvania has suffered and the “shameful” example of the drilling industry’s political influence in that state, a former top Pennsylvania official told a Maryland General Assembly committee today.

John Quigley, former Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (photo above), told the Maryland House Environmental Matters Committee that natural gas also has environmental benefits, such as creating less air pollution and mercury contamination than coal.

But he cautioned Maryland lawmakers that there are “ample reasons” to be concerned about water pollution and other serious problems from drilling. The wastewater produced by drilling “is hundreds of times saltier than seawater,” Quigley said. “And it can come back with naturally occurring radioactive material.”

He added: “We have already experienced major problems with natural gas migration and contamination of drinking wells… We have had well blow-outs and fire… We have gas bubbling into the Susquehanna River, to everyone’s surprise.”

“A go-slow approach is justifiable,” Quigley advised Maryland officials. “New York is taking a pause” to study hydraulic fracturing before allowing large-scale drilling, he noted. “Take as much time as you can to understand these issues.”

While thousands of natural gas wells have been drilled to the north and south of Maryland over the last five years, not a single well has been drilled in Maryland in 15 years, even though Western Maryland sits atop the same gas-rich Marcellus shale formation at Pennsylvania and West Virginia. Two companies have applied to start hydraulic fracturing in Maryland.The Maryland Department of the Environment is considering these permits as state lawmakers discuss what -- if anything -- the state can do to protect streams and drinking water.

Across Garrett County in Western Maryland, more than 500 landowners have signed agreements with drilling companies to give them rights to drill under about a quarter of the land in the county, according to county records.

John Griffin, Secretary of the Maryland Department of Natural Resources, told the legislative committee yesterday that the O’Malley Administration is trying to be cautious about drilling.

“We have been operating using the precautionary principal,” Griffin told the committee. “The burden of proof that no harm will occur should be on those who are proposing it…and they should be held liable for the cost of remediation, not the public at large.”

State Del. Maggie McIntosh of Baltimore, the chairwoman of the committee, said that she thinks Maryland should also be careful and study the examples from Pennsylvania. “If we are going to have drilling in Maryland, we want to do it right,” McIntosh said. “We don’t want to have the experiences the other states have had with their environment and drinking water.”

State Delegate Anthony J. O’Donnell, who represents Calvert and St. Mary’s Counties, questioned the
“incendiary” words that Quigley used to describe the political influence of the drilling industry in Pennsylvania.

Quigley used the term in his written testimony to the committee yesterday to describe the lobbying efforts that have kept Pennsylvania as the only gas-producing state in the U.S. that does not impose a tax on gas extraction.

“Lobbying isn’t necessarily a bad thing,” O’Donnell noted.

Quigley replied that “shameful” is the right word. “It happens to be the truth….The industry employs a lot of lobbyists, and has documented spending in the millions of dollars….they spend a lot of money in campaign contributions, to influence the general assembly…. They have been able to buy a big microphone.”

Across Pennsylvania, another 100,000 or more wells are expected to be drilled over the next several years, Quigley said. About a third of Pennsylvania’s state forests – about 700,000 of 2.2 million acres – are under lease to drilling companies.

The money raised from leasing out this state land should have gone back to conservation in Pennsylvania, but has not, Quigley said. Over a half a billion dollars from drilling companies have gone to the state as compensation for using state land, and this money should have gone into the conservation of state land, Quigley said. Instead, it has been diverted into the state’s general fund, Quigley said.

“The people of Maryland should consider what is happening in Pennsylvania as a cautionary tale,” Quigley told the committee.

No companies have applied for permits in Maryland’s state forests. Unlike in Pennsylvania, Maryland owns the mineral rights under its state forests, and so has more control over what happens on and beneath the land, according to the Maryland Department of Natural Resources.

By Tom Pelton

EPA Wants to Look at Full Lifecycle of Fracking in New Study

EPA Wants to Look at Full Lifecycle of Fracking in New Study

by Nicholas Kusnetz
ProPublica, Feb. 9, 2011, 2:32 p.m.

The EPA has proposed examining every aspect of hydraulic fracturing, from water withdrawals to waste disposal, according to a draft plan the agency released Tuesday. If the study goes forward as planned, it would be the most comprehensive investigation of whether the drilling technique risks polluting drinking water near oil and gas wells across the nation.

The agency wants to look at the potential impacts on drinking water of each stage involved in hydraulic fracturing, where drillers mix water with chemicals and sand and inject the fluid into wells to release oil or natural gas. In addition to examining the actual injection, the study would look at withdrawals, the mixing of the chemicals, and wastewater management and disposal. The agency, under a mandate from Congress, will only look at the impact of these practices on drinking water.

The agency’s scientific advisory board [1] will review the draft plan on March 7-8 and will allow for public comments then. The EPA will consider any recommendations from the board and then begin the study promptly, it said in a news release [2]. A preliminary report should be ready by the end of next year, the release said, with a full report expected in 2014.

A statement from the oil and gas industry group Energy in Depth gave a lukewarm assessment of the draft.

“Our guys are and will continue to be supportive of a study approach that’s based on the science, true to its original intent and scope,” the statement read. “But at first blush, this document doesn’t appear to definitively say whether it’s an approach EPA will ultimately take.”

The study, announced in March [3], comes amid rising public concern about the safety of fracking, as ProPublica has been reporting [4] for years. While it remains unclear whether the actual fracturing process has contaminated drinking water, there have been more than 1,000 reports [5] around the country of contamination related to drilling, as we reported in 2008. In September 2010, the EPA warned residents of a Wyoming town [6] not to drink their well water and to use fans while showering to avoid the risk of explosion. Investigators found methane and other chemicals associated with drilling in the water, but they had not determined the cause of the contamination.

Drillers have been fracking wells for decades, but with the rise of horizontal drilling into unconventional formations like shale, they are injecting far more water and chemicals underground than ever before. The EPA proposal notes that 603 rigs were drilling horizontal wells in June 2010, more than twice as many as were operating a year earlier. Horizontal wells can require millions of gallons of water per well, a much greater volume than in conventional wells.

One point of contention is the breadth of the study. Chris Tucker, a spokesman for Energy in Depth, said he understands the need to address any stage of the fracking that might affect drinking water, but he’s skeptical that water withdrawals meet the criteria.

“The only way you can argue that issues related to water demand are relevant to that question is if you believe the fracturing process requires such a high volume of water that its very execution threatens the general availability of the potable sources,” he wrote in an e-mail.

The EPA proposal estimates that fracking uses 70 to 140 billion gallons of water annually, or about the same amount used by one or two cities of 2.5 million people. In the Barnett Shale, in Texas, the agency estimates fracking for gas drilling consumes nearly 2 percent of all the water used in the area.

The EPA proposes using two or three “prospective” case studies to follow the course of drilling and fracking wells from beginning to end. It would also look at three to five places where drilling has reportedly contaminated water, including two potential sites in Pennsylvania’s Marcellus Shale, and one site each in Texas, Colorado and North Dakota.

3 dead in Pa. natural gas explosion; 2 missing

3 dead in Pa. natural gas explosion; 2 missing

AP/Rich Schultz

– 11 mins ago

ALLENTOWN, Pa. – A natural gas explosion rocked a downtown neighborhood overnight, leveling two houses and spawning fires that burned for hours through an entire row of neighboring homes. Three people were killed, including an infant, and at least two others were unaccounted for Thursday.

A couple in their 70s lived in a two-story row house that blew up about 10:45 p.m. Wednesday, police Chief Roger MacClean said. Michelle Hall told The Morning Call newspaper that her in-laws, Beatrice Hall, 74, and William, 79, lived in the home.

The victims ranged in age from 4 months to 79 years old, fire Chief Robert Scheirer said, but city officials have not released the names of those killed or missing.

The cause of the explosion was unclear. The blaze was put out early Thursday, delayed by the difficulty of digging through packed layers of snow and ice to a ruptured underground gas line that was feeding the flames, Scheirer said. About 500 to 600 people who were evacuated were allowed to return home.

Six people had been reported missing earlier, but Scheirer says officials believe one of them was not home at the time of the blast.

Scheirer predicted eight houses would be lost and another 16 damaged.

A routine leak-detection check of the gas main that serves the area on the day before the explosion found no problems, a spokesman for a utility said.

There's no history of leaks for that section of 12-inch cast-iron main, and there were no calls about gas odors before the explosion, said Joe Swope of Reading-based UGI Utilities Inc.

The utility used foam to seal the gas main on both ends of a one-block area at about 3:45 a.m. Thursday. It took crews some time to cut through reinforced concrete underneath the pavement, Swope said.

The blast was so powerful that it sent a flat-screen computer monitor sailing into the back of Antonio Arroyo, whose house was on the opposite end of the row from the explosion.

"I thought we were under attack," he recalled from a shelter where some 250 people took refuge in the hours after the blast. Arroyo and his wife, Jill, both 43, lost their home in the fire.

Antonio said he ran outside and saw that an entire house had been leveled, a fireball now raging in the spot where it once stood. "What I saw, I couldn't believe," said Arroyo, a community volunteer.

He and his wife, a nurse, fled their home with only the clothes on their back. They planned to return at daylight to see what they could salvage. Jill Arroyo broke down sobbing when she recalled her son's athletic memorabilia — likely lost in the blaze — including DVDs of his high school football games.

"The DVDs are gone. All his trophies are gone. All gone," she sobbed as her husband comforted her.

Tricia Aleski, who lives a few blocks away, said the explosion jangled her nerves.

"I was reading a book in the living room and it felt like a giant kicked the house. It all shook. Everything shook," she said. "I checked the stove and everything, (to) make sure everything's off."

Jason Soke was watching college basketball when he heard and felt the explosion. It rattled his windows. He went to the third floor and looked out and saw flames and smoke.
"Your senses kind of get stunned," he said. "It puts you on edge."

GAS DRILLING NEWS - Submit Comments / Attend Events


The Delaware River Basin Commission (DRBC),
has issued drilling and fracking rules - against
the will of NYS, NYC, PHILLY, NPS, FWS,
many elected officials, and thousands of citizens.
Please submit comments today to the DRBC.

Advice from our lawyers and experts - is
that you submit a separate comment for
each "single issue" you wish to address.
It is advised that - along with your
personal views - you should quote
science, experts, industry record.
See expert reports and special points.
You may submit as many single-issue
comments as you feel is necessary:

Upper Delaware Council - Expert Session - Feb. 10
Snow-Flow - Creativity, Organizing - Feb. 11-13
NYS Home Rule - Eldred, NY - Feb. 19
DRBC Hearings - Honesdale, Liberty, Trenton - Feb. 22, 24
Water-Aid - Free Benefit, Awards Event, Concert - April 14

Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Gas Drilling
This event took place on January 14, 2011 at Sullivan County High School in Laporte, PA

With presentations by:

Dr. Anthony Ingraffea: Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Cornell University and
Dr. Terry Engelder: Professor of Geosciences and Fracture Mechanics at Penn State University

Co-sponsored by:

Protect Eagles Mere Alliance and Responsible Drilling Alliance
Guest speakers: Barb Jarmoska, Craig & Julie Sautner, & "Gasland" film maker Josh Fox
Host/moderator: John Trallo

Engelder/Ingraffea debate in Laporte: Video + Editorials in Press+Sun

Comment: I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Anthony Ingraffea, Dr. Terry Engelder, Criag & Julie Sautner, Josh Fox, Responsible Drilling Alliance (RDA), Protect Eagles Mere Alliance (PEMA), and Sullivan County High School and Sullivan County Board of Education who all contributed a great deal, and without compensation, in making this informative public event possible.

*I would also like to acknowledge the Natural Gas Industry and the Marcellus Gas Coalition for without them, none of this would be necessary! (sarcasm)
Pennsylvania’s Drilling Wastewater Released to Streams, Some Unaccounted For

Nicholas Kusnetz

Wednesday, 05 January 2011 14:54

Read the original post at its source -- including links/images where applicable.

As gas-drilling operations proliferated in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale over the past couple of years, most of the hundreds of millions of gallons of briny wastewater they produced was eventually dumped into the state's rivers. Much of the rest is unaccounted for. That news, from a detailed look [1] at the state's management of drilling wastewater by the Associated Press, should come as no surprise to readers of this site.

As we reported [2] in October 2009, Pennsylvania was largely unprepared for the vast quantities of salty, chemically tainted wastewater produced by drilling operations in the Marcellus, the gas-bearing shale formation that stretches under that state and into West Virginia, New York and Ohio. While the state Department of Environmental Protection called for the fluids to be sent through municipal treatment plants, those facilities are largely unable to remove the salts and minerals, also known as Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), from the waste.

As our story noted, abnormally high salt levels in the Monongahela River in 2008 corroded machinery at a steel mill and a power plant that were drawing water from the river. The DEP suspected that drilling wastewater was the cause and ordered upstream treatment plants to reduce their output. But months later levels spiked again.

AP examined the DEP's first annual report of waste produced by drilling operations in Pennsylvania's Marcellus Shale area from July 2009 through June 2010. Among the AP findings:

* More than 150 million gallons were discharged into rivers after passing through treatment plants in the 12-month period. Enough, as the AP put it, "to cover a square mile with more than 8 1/2 inches of brine."

* More than 50 million gallons, or about one-fifth of the total waste fluid, was unaccounted for because of "weakness" in the state's reporting system or incomplete filings from drilling companies.

The AP report says researchers still don't know whether high TDS levels are harmful to humans or wildlife. But the analysis found that some public water utilities had exceeded the federal limit for levels of cancer-causing trihalomethanes, which can form when chlorine in drinking-water treatment systems combines with bromide, which can be present in drilling waste.

As we reported back in 2009, the federal EPA recommends against discharging drilling wastewater into rivers, but it allowed Pennsylvania to continue the practice because more stringent regulations were in the works. The DEP announced new limits on TDS discharges in August, but they apply only to new and expanding facilities. The department has not yet responded to ProPublica's questions about the number or nature of any new treatment plant applications, so it's unclear to what extent these new standards are actually being practiced.

Another solution, which DEP secretary John Hanger and drilling companies say is already in the works, is to encourage companies to reduce waste by reusing wastewater in new wells. Hanger told the AP he thinks about 70 percent of fluids are now being reused.

But as we reported [3] in December 2009, part of the reason drillers are able to achieve such high rates of reuse is that much of the fluid they pump into gas wells never comes back to the surface. When as much as 85 percent of the water and chemical mixture remains in the ground, drillers can dilute what little comes back with fresh water and reuse it. While that solves the issue of discharging briny water into rivers, it raises a separate set of questions about the implications of leaving fracking chemicals underground.

As the AP notes, industry claims of higher levels of waste-recycling can't be verified until the next DEP report is released, in mid-winter. Until then, Hanger called for "daily vigilance" of rivers and streams to ensure standards are being met.
Comment: Judging by the industry's behavior up until now, it is reasonable to assume that this is NOT an industry that be trusted to regulate itself, or respect the current laws and regulations that Pennsylvania already has in place. ~JT



February 7, 2011 — With the recent Oscar nomination of my documentary film GASLAND, Big Gas and their PR attack machine hit a new low in its blatant disregard for the truth.
In an unprecedented move, an oil and gas industry front group sent a letter to the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences saying that the film should be ineligible for best documentary feature.
We are honored and encouraged by the Academy’s nomination.  It is terrific to be acknowledged as filmmakers by the film world’s most prestigious honor.  But perhaps more than that, I believe that the nomination has provided hope, inspiration and affirmation for the thousands of families out there who are suffering because of natural gas drilling.  The Oscars are about dreams, and I know that for all of us living with the nightmare of gas drilling the nomination provides further proof that someone out there cares.
Now Big Gas wants to take that away, as they have shattered the American dream for so many.
GASLAND exposes the disaster being caused across the U.S. by the largest domestic natural gas drilling campaign history and how the contentious Halliburton-developed drilling technology called hydraulic fracturing, or fracking threatens the water supply of millions.
Fracking is a whole-scale industrialization process that pumps millions of gallons of toxic material directly into the ground. Thousands of documented contamination cases show the harmful chemicals used have been turning up in people’s water supplies in fracking areas all over the map.
We stand behind the testimonials, facts, science and investigative journalism in the film 100 percent.  We have issued a point-by-point rebuttal of the group’s claims (”Affirming Gasland”), posted on our website:
It’s not just us they’re after.  The gas industry goes after anyone who tries to punch a hole in their lie. Last week the same pro-drilling group, Energy in Depth (EID), attacked an investigative piece on drilling pollution by ProPublica, the highly credible public interest journalism organization.
And just last week, T. Boone Pickens, the most visible promoter of gas fracking, went on The Daily Show claiming that he personally has fracked over 3,000 wells and never witnessed any contamination cases, even when Jon Stewart asked him about GASLAND point blank.  He simply stated over and over again the industry lie, that fracking is safe.  Not a single word of acknowledgement, or responsibility for the claims of thousands and the threat posed to millions.
The gas industry believes it can create a new reality in which their nationwide onshore drilling campaign isn’t a disaster.  But no amount of PR money or slick ads can keep the stories of contamination coming from thousands of Americans from being any less true.

On Monday, Congressional investigators called out frackers for pumping millions of gallons of diesel fuel directly into the ground, exposing drinking water sources to benzene and other carcinogens. This makes EID’s specious and misleading attack on the science and data in GASLAND  especially ironic since Halliburton stonewalled Congressman Henry Waxman’s investigation into fracking, refusing to provide data on their use of diesel and other harmful chemicals injected in the fracking process.
There are major watershed areas providing water to millions of Americans that are at risk here, including the watershed areas for New York City and Philadelphia. The catastrophe has been widely covered not only in GASLAND, but also by hundreds of news stories, films and TV segments. This is a moment of crisis that cannot be understated.
Even before its release, the power of the film was not lost on the industry. In the March 24th edition of the Oil and Gas Journal, Skip Horvath, the president of the Natural Gas Supply Association said that GASLAND is “well done. It holds people’s attention. And it could block our industry.”
GASLAND was seen by millions and I personally toured with the film to over 100 cities. In affected areas, people came to the screenings with their contaminated water samples in tow. They came to have the truth they know shared and confirmed.
As Maurice D. Hinchey, U.S. Representative (NY-22) recently said, “Thanks to GASLAND and the millions of grassroots activists across the country, we finally have a counterweight to the influence of the oil and gas industry in our nation’s capital.”
Big Gas is blocking the truth in their pursuit of hundreds of billions of dollars of profit. Their clear goal is to ensure our nation remains addicted to fossil fuels for the rest of this century. They seek to stifle the development of truly renewable energy.
They’re playing dirty in more ways than one, attacking the film and the testimonials and science in it instead of taking responsibility and addressing the contamination, destruction and harm that they are creating. I now know how the people in my documentary feel, to have the things they know to be true and the questions they are raising so blatantly discounted and smeared. It is truly unfortunate that the gas-drilling industry continues to deny what is so obvious to Americans living in gaslands across the nation.
Josh Fox — Director, GASLAND
Media Contact:  Josh Baran - - 917-797-1799
Josh Fox is based in New York City and will be in Washington, D.C. on February 17.  He is available for interviews.  DVD screeners for the media are available.

Sept. 7 - 8. 2011 in Philly's Convention Center

The Marcellus Shale Coalition [drillers' shillers], are holding their 2011 conference in PHILADELPHIA - Sept. 7 - 8. 2011 in Philly's Convention Center.

Please get the word out to all of your Philly networks. The MSC canceled their 2010 Conference, which was to be held in Pittsburgh, [they never gave a reason for the cancellation].

This is only February, plenty of time for Philly activists to get together & plan a Grand Slam.

I will be there, and will try to get a coalition from Sullivan County, PA to attend as well.

*The people of Philadelphia have been a powerful voice in defending our state against this industrial intrusion. Although I now live in Sullivan County, PA, I was born and raised in Philadelphia, and am proud of my old home town.

Sert. 7th & 8th... I'm there!

When people lead, leaders follow.

ATTENTION: Residents of Sullivan County, PA - As the saying goes... I'm putting my money where my mouth is.

ATTENTION: Residents of Sullivan County, PA - As the saying goes... I'm putting my money where my mouth is.

by John Trallo on Wednesday, February 9, 2011

Residents of Sullivan County, PA:

I have, after much coaxing from many local citizens, and some careful thought, I have decided to run as a democrat for Sullivan County Commissioner in the upcoming 2011 election.

In order to get on the ballot, I will need the minimum signatures of 100 Sullivan County registered democrats, by March 8, 2011. I must emphasize, that according to the rules, you must be a resident of Sullivan County, and registered to vote as a democrat. However, should I get on the ballot, democrats, republicans, independents, et al, will be able to cast their vote for me, should you think I'm qualified, and worthy of your support.

I will be picking up the necessary paperwork and the official signature forms this week.

Please feel free to contact me to discuss any issues and concerns you feel are important. Please feel free to forward this information on to other Sullivan County residents.

Thank you!
John Trallo
phone: 570-482-3503

Congrats, Buffalo!

Pennsylvania has the power, and is gathering the numbers needed to say to the industry, and the political powers that be: "Pennsylvania will not be the 'lab' the industry practices on to 'get it right', and the people of Pennsylvania will not be their 'lab rats' any longer! Pennsylvania does not belong to the gas industry, and it does not belong to the policiticians. It belongs to the people because this is the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania."

Never underestimate the ability of a small group of dedicated and committed people to educate and change the minds of the many. Nothing is impossible!

Congrats, Buffalo!

Council votes to ban hydrofracking
By Brian Meyer
February 8, 2011, 2:57 PM

Hearing airs pleas for ban on 'fracking' in Buffalo
Opposition to 'fracking' affirmed by Common Council

Updated: February 8, 2011, 5:24 PM

The Common Council has voted to ban any form of natural gas extraction in Buffalo, including a controversial mining technique known as hydrofracking.

Ban supporters admit this afternoon's unanimous vote is largely symbolic, given the fact that no "fracking" projects have been proposed in Buffalo. But they insist the ban could be a catalyst in spurring similar actions in municipalities in New York, Pennsylvania and other states where gas-rich Marcellus Shale is located.

"We're hoping Southern Tier communities will do the same thing," said North representative Joseph Golombek Jr., the bill's lead sponsor. "This action shows that the lead city in the region is taking a lead role."

No known deposits of Marcellus Shale underlie Buffalo.

Fracking opponents claim the drilling process possesses significant environmental risks, including possible contamination of water tables. The State Legislature last year imposed a temporary ban on fracking through May 15, pending further study.

About 50 fracking opponents held a news conference following the Council vote. They praised lawmakers for making Buffalo for the first city in the state and only the second major city nationwide to impose such a ban. Last fall, Pittsburgh banned fracking.

Supporters of the initiative noted that Buffalo's ban would also apply to other potentially harmful forms of gas extraction.

On a related issue, the Council wants Buffalo Sewer Authority General Manager David P. Comerford to appear at a meeting next week to address fears that the authority might have accepted water from hydrofracking wells. An article published two weeks ago in ArtVoice raised the possibility that a company that operates such wells may have transported "frack water" to the city authority.

Comerford could not immediately be reached to comment. Council Majority Leader Richard A. Fontana, who sponsored the bill that calls for a Council review of the issue, noted that Comerford previously had stated that water is tested three times a year and that no fracking-related contaminants have been discovered in "runoff water" the authority accepted.

"We need to get all the facts," said Fontana, who represents the Lovejoy District. "This is about protecting our Great Lakes."

Fracking is a process that uses chemically treated water to help unlock natural gas in shale. In December, National Fuel said it "has no plans to pursue Marcellus Shale drilling in New York State."

The most controversial fracking is occurring in horizontal wells that are being drilled in Pennsylvania. The wells go down for about a mile, then turn at almost a 90 degree angle and continue for a half mile or more horizontally, through layers of Marcellus Shale.
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